Thermodynamics in electric vehicle design is used to help calculate energy and power needs for heating and cooling.
See basic formulas for the physics of motion for definitions of energy and power.
Energy Required to Heat a Solid, Liquid or Gas
The formula to determine the how much energy it takes to heat an object is given by:
Energy = material heat capacity * material mass * increase in heat
E = C * M * DT
E - energy in Joules
C - material's heat capacity in Joules/(kg-oKelvin)
m - mass of the material in kg
DT - the increase in heat in degrees Kelvin
Water has a heat capacity of 4190 J/(kg-oKelvin)